Our friendly and excellent guides are available as Step On Guides for any visiting tour or coach operators who may like a unique, entertaining and educational tour of Irish History and the events of Easter Week 1916.

Wednesday, December 8, 2021

The Pubs of Ringsend Walking Tour - Episode Four THE OLD ENGLAND TAVERN


Welcome to Episode Four of our series on the pubs of Ringsend. These stories will form the basis of the forthcoming The Historic Pubs of Ringsend Walking Tour in 2022 and a book on the history of the pubs in both Ringsend and Sandymount. Today we will look at the story of another long lost pub in the Village, ‘The Old England Tavern’.


Located at Number 6 Thorncastle Street, this pub began life as ‘The London Tavern’ in the early 1800’s. By 1850 it was in the hands of John Nickells (or Nicholls) and it was Nickells that renamed the pub as ‘The Old England Tavern’. There had been a previous incarnation of ‘The Old England Tavern’ for many decades at 10 Georges Quay but when it was sold in the 1840’s and renamed the tavern title became available.

In the 1870’s it was purchased by Patrick Mulholland. Mulholland was declared a lunatic, which was a nineteenth century name for an alcoholic. Following his death, ‘The Old England Tavern’ was run by his widow Mary. Mary died on July 29th 1884, following which her pub was put on the market by the executors of her will in November of that year. It was purchased by James P. Purcell, who within weeks of opening found himself in court on a charge of serving afterhours and was fined. Purcell obviously over-extended himself as he was declared bankrupt on December 14th 1886. On April 1st 1887 the pub was sold at the auction house of Frank Hodgens to James Byrne for £270 (£37,000 in today’s cash). Byrne stayed just five years in Ringsend before selling his pub to William McEvoy in 1892.

In 1906 the pub was purchased by Tipperary born Thomas James Carroll, the license being transferred from Joseph Mulholland into Carroll’s name. Carroll was a married man, having married Elizabeth from Kildare in 1900. On September 18th 1908, the pub was raided by the local police from Irishtown for serving afterhours after a number of men were spotted playing billiards in the pub after closing time. The last occupant of Number 6 Thorncastle Street was William Phelan but upon his death the pub was sold in January 1920. The pub was described as having a,

‘compact, well-appointed bar, bagatelle room, good cellarage, bottling store etc and four living rooms. The house has an entrance also from Fitzwilliam Street, which is a great business advantage.’

When the property was sold for £2,530, the license was allowed lapse and a grocery business was operated from the building. In recent decades, under various names the former Old England Tavern has been a chemist. In the next Episode we will feature one of the most fascinating pub history in Ringsend and so vast is that history that the story will be spread over three posts. We will begin next with the early history of the pub known today as THE OARSMAN.

Wednesday, December 1, 2021

The Pubs of Ringsend Walking Tour - Episode Three from Harrisons to Fitzharris to Domino's


 Welcome to part three of our look at some of the Pubs of Ringsend. In 2022 a Walking Tour will commence bringing you the colourful history of the many pubs and tales of Ringsend or Raytown as the locals know it. One of the now departed public houses in Ringsend but one of the most popular was known as Fitzharris’s for over a century. A popular place for the local dockers. Number 4 Bridge Street, now home to Domino Pizza’s, was also one of the earliest pubs in the village.

One publican who bettered himself after his time trading at 4 Bridge Street was Richard Hill. In October 1781 he announced through adverts in the newspapers he was opening a new tavern at No.2 Crow Street off Dame Street. He had been running a tavern in Ringsend known as Clements for a number of years. By June 1782 he was off loading his premises in Ringsend and it was put up for lease. It was described as having ‘stables, a good kitchen, garden and a large assembly room, all in good order.’ Hill had taken over from James Clements who had traded there since 1777. Both men were ship builders along the River Dodder and the River Liffey, which was common that they also owned a local tavern where their workers not only received their wages but then encouraged to spend them. Clements went bankrupt and Hill took over the running of the tavern with little or no experience as an innkeeper.

It was known as Harrison’s Tavern in 1782. The Dublin Chronicle newspaper reported on September 23rd 1788 that being exhibited at the tavern was ‘a radish of surprising magnitude, it measures in length one yard and a quarter and in circumference eleven inches and a quarter.’


By the early 1800’s the Ringsend Tavern, as it was now known, was a popular eatery. Originally run by John Howard in 1805 the running of the pub was in the hands of Mr. and Mrs. Madden. The pub was located approximately where Clarke’s public house is today. An advertisement in the Saunders Newsletter stated,

‘Howard’s is fitted in an elegant manner where clubs, parties etc can be accommodated in the shortest notice with best dinners in season and with Wines, Malt Liquors and spirits of superior quality.’

It also importantly added for the time,

‘Excellent accommodation for horses and carriages’

Howard had been a partner of Thomas Bray in the prosperous Ringsend Salt Works until a legal dispute erupted between Howard and Bray’s brother Michael[1].


In 1830, the pub was being run by John Eustace and his pub found its name in the newspaper for all the wrong reasons. John Higgins and George Eastwood were local fishermen who entered Eustace’s pub to have a drink. Eustace was also a fellow fisherman. The Dublin Observer then reported what happened next.

‘The deceased and Eastwood, the prisoner in custody for the murder, were fishermen living Ringsend, and had an altercation in the early part Saturday last, relative to some expressions which the latter (Eastwood) made use of towards a female member of the deceased’s family, which, however, were not much minded the latter, who offered shortly afterwards to shake hands with the prisoner, and have nothing more about the matter; but this was refused by Eastwood, who said on more occasions than one, ' I’ll have your life's blood, and make you drink before the day ends.” In the evening both parties met together in a public house belonging to a man named Eustace, of Ringsend, when, after sitting there a short time, and some conversation having arisen, during which reference was made to the original dispute, and the deceased again proffered the hand of friendship. Eastwood suddenly rose from his seat, and pulling out sharp pointed instrument, something like a dagger, plunged it into the body of his unfortunate companion between the fifth and sixth rib, and penetrated into the cavity of heart. The deceased bad only time to say (putting his hand upon the wound), He has done for me,” when he fell forward and immediately expired. His friends then brought the body to Jervis Street hospital.’

The Freeman Journal reported the testimony of the publican John Eustace,

'The prisoner (Eastwood) came in and commenced using irritating language to the deceased. Higgins desired him to go away, that he wished to have nothing to do with him. The prisoner still (continued to annoy him, when deceased gave him a shove. The prisoner then said, "1 will have satisfaction of you for that before I sleep.", This was about five o'clock. In a subsequent part of the evening, about an hour afterwards, deceased invited the prisoner to make it up, and asked him to take a drink of porter. His reply was, ‘No, I won't but I'll give you some of your own blood to drink before you go to bed.’ About seven o'clock witness joined the deceased (Higgins) in Eustace's public-house. Eastwood (the prisoner) was in the same room, but in a distant seat. He came over to where deceased and witness were sitting, and said to deceased, " You bloody villain, I'll have your life." Some words ensued, and deceased took the prisoner up by the collar and the leg and carried him over to the fire-place, where he laid him down, deceased observed, when he did so, " you see it is not worth my while to strike a boy like you;" deceased had his back turned to prisoner, coming back to his seat, when the later struck him in the chest deceased then observed, "Johnny, damn me but he has done for me, he has whipped it through me ;" deceased then fell without uttering another word; in the conversation that took place previous to deceased's lifting the prisoner over to the fire, the latter made some insulting allusions to the sisters of the former; the prisoner was tipsy at the time, he was more tipsy at the latter end of the dispute, when he struck the blow, than he was at the commencement, deceased was also a little " hearty;" he appeared to be some- what irritated when he lifted the prisoner off the ground.


Eustace’s son Joseph Junior then bought a pub on Thorncastle Street before his father sold the pub on Bridge Street.

In 1862 the pub was sold once again by the now owner Captain Sloan who announced that he was leaving to concentrate on other business interests. The pub was purchased by William Heapes who then left the pub to his son Joseph. His daughter Elizabeth married local shipwright James Barry. Upon the death of his father in law, Barry took over the running of the pub. The pub was now being run by Barry and now the Fitzharris name enters the story. Laurence Fitzharris, originally from County Carlow, was employed as a barman in the pub next door at Number Eight, rising to the role of manager. When the pub at Number Four was sold by the family of the late William Heapes in June 1895, Fitzharris purchased the pub and put his name above the door. 


In 1914, the police were attacked on Bridge Street in the aftermath of ill feelings after the 1913 Lock Out. The police reported that they were showered with glasses and bottles thrown from the upper floors of Fitzharris’s by customers without the knowledge of the owner. Laurence Fitzharris passed away in December 1920 leaving the family to run the pub. He missed out seeing his daughter Eleanor (also known as Lillie) marry Sir John Esmonde in 1922. Esmonde served both as an MP in the British Parliament and as a TD for Fine Gael in the Dail.

The Fitzharris Family as published by Martin Gueret

1948 was a traumatic year for the Fitzharris family. Mary (nee Moran from Wicklow), Laurence’s widow, passed away on January 7th 1948 and on May 22nd her youngest son Maurice also died. A relative, Maurice Gueret writing in Sunday Independent recalled his Uncle Maurice,

‘He was known in the locality as ‘The Hump' Fitzharris, for he was born with a hunched back, or acquired it when dropped as a baby. (There are two medical opinions on his story). Maurice was the baby of the family and, all his life, was very attached to his mother. In fact, he died just months after she did. ‘The Hump' was a cruel sobriquet, you might think, but Dockland could be an unforgiving place, and not a place for the sensitive soul.’


Following his passing, his sister Kathleen Butterly applied for the transfer of the licence. In 1966 the licence was transferred to another sister Margaret who had married Phillip Meers on August 3rd 1926. Laurence and Mary’s sons Laurence Junior died in New York in December 1954 and John died in April 1967. According to Maurice Gueret was sold by Ethel Fitzharris who had married Jack Fitzharris

In the new century Fitzharris’s closed as public house and for a number of years operated as an off licence before becoming a branch of Domino’s Pizza.

In the next episode of this series we will look at the wonderful and colourful history of another departed pub of Ringsend once known as The London Tavern but for over a century known more popularly as The Old England Tavern. 

[1] The Dublin Saunders Newsletter

Wednesday, November 24, 2021

The Pubs of Ringsend Walking Tour - Episode Two - The Earliest Pubs in Ringsend


Welcome to part two of our look at some of the Pubs of Ringsend. In 2022 a Walking Tour will commence bringing you the colourful history of the many pubs and tales of Ringsend or Raytown as the locals know it. There were some early public houses in Ringsend even in the days when Oliver Crowell landed there in August 1649 with twelve thousand troops. Despite his proclamation against drink, pub life continued. Having been seasick on the journey across the Irish Sea, Cromwell and some of his Lieutenants went into the first tavern they met in Ringsend, plied themselves with drink and then closed all the taverns in the village.

It was said that at one stage by the mid eighteenth century every third house in Ringsend was an alehouse. One of the earliest infamous pubs was The Kings Head Tavern on Thorncastle Street. In 1683 the tavern was run by a man called Brennan and found itself under surveillance from the Crown Forces when three cousins of his stayed in the Tavern. The Brennan’s Patrick and James from Kilkenny had been on the run after a series of highway robberies and were the number one target of the Chief Justice John Keating. They had been arrested for murder and robbery, tried, found guilty and sentenced to hang but as they reached the scaffold they were rescued by compatriots and went on the run. Having stayed a number of nights enjoying the hospitality of the Tavern, they became aware that they were being targeted by spies and the brothers, along with a young cousin Daniel, slipped quietly out to a ship in the Basin and escaped to Britain. They arrived in Chester but unluckily for them, one of their victims recognised the robbers and they were arrested. They bribed their warders and escaped once more and made their way back to Ireland where they stayed at liberty in their native Kilkenny.


In 1698, British writer John Dunston travelled throughout Ireland and as his tour ended, he wrote that,

‘I had very agreeable company in Ringsend and was nobly treated at the King’s Head.’

By the mid eighteenth century another public house was enjoying success. Known as The Sign of the Good Woman it was operated by a Mrs L’Swaire. It made its name with food and drink and was a popular for its Poolbeg Oysters. The Oysters were fished for and supplied at the time by Messers Bunit and Simpson, whose name would later adorn a pub for many years in the twentieth century on Bridge Street in Ringsend.

The name of a Ringsend tavern known as the Good Woman would also appear in James Joyce’s work Finnegan’s Wake[1]. In it he wrote

‘and the foretaste of the Dun Bank pearl mothers and the boy to wash down which he would feed to himself in the Ruadh[2] Cow at Tallaght and then into the Good Woman at Ringsend and after her in at Conway’s Inn at Blackrock.’


In 1765 another popular Ringsend tavern was The Sign of the Highlander[3] which was run by Mrs Sherlock. The pub had a billiards table which you could play for two pence and was overseen by Mrs. Sherlock who acted as the marker for the games, the holder of any bets and as an adjudicator for any disputes that may arise. Her brother had emigrated to London where he was known as a great swordsman

‘who many years before had been victor in every broad-sword contest of consequence, at a time when the skilful management of that weapon was considered of importance in London’ [4]


One publican who bettered himself after his time trading in Ringsend was Richard Hill. In October 1781 he announced through adverts in the newspapers he was opening a new tavern at No.2 Crow Street off Dame Street. He had been running a tavern in Ringsend known as Clements for a number of years. By June 1782 he was off loading his premises in Ringsend and it was put up for lease. It was described as having ‘stables, a good kitchen, garden and a large assembly room, all in good order.’ Hill had taken over from James Clements who had traded since 1777. Both men were ship builders along the River Dodder and the River Liffey which was common that they also owned a local tavern where their workers not only received their wages but then encouraged to spend them. Clements went bankrupt and Hill took over the running of the tavern with little or no experience as an innkeeper.

The nearest pub to the bridge crossing the River Dodder in 1788 was Harrison’s Tavern and the Dublin Chronicle reported on September 23rd 1788 that being exhibited at the tavern was ‘a radish of surprising magnitude, it measures in length one yard and a quarter and in circumference eleven inches and a quarter.’


By the early 1800’s the Ringsend Tavern on Bridge Street was a popular eatery. Originally run by John Howard in 1805 the running of the pub was in the hands of Mr. and Mrs. Madden. The pub was located approximately where Clarke’s public house is today. An advertisement in the Saunders Newsletter stated,

‘Howard’s is fitted in an elegant manner where clubs, parties etc can be accommodated in the shortest notice with best dinners in season and with Wines, Malt Liquors and spirits of superior quality.’

It also importantly added for the time,

‘Excellent accommodation for horses and carriages’

Howard had been a partner of Thomas Bray in the prosperous Ringsend Salt Works until a legal dispute erupted between Howard and Bray’s brother Michael[5].

In the next episode we will be looking at the pubs popularly remembered at Fitzharris’s which was located near the bridge in a building now occupied by a pizza firm.

Check our social media platforms for dates and booking details for the forthcoming Walking Tour.

[1] Published 1939.

[2] Irish word for Red

[3] Recollections of the Life of John O’Keefe, Volume One

[4] The Annals of Booterstown to Donnybrook

[5] The Dublin Saunders Newsletter

Thursday, November 18, 2021

The Pubs of Ringsend Walking Tour - Episode One 'NORTH'S'


Coming in 2022, following the successful ‘The History of Sandymount’s Pub Walking Tour’ and ‘The Pubs of Rathmines Tour’, we will be bringing you ‘The Pubs of Ringsend Heritage Walking Tour’. To whet your appetite for some of the stories and tales you will hear, we will bring you over the coming weeks some of the histories of the pubs no longer open. Today we will be starting with North’s public house, in coming weeks we’ll bring you the histories of The Sign of the Highlanders, The Old England Tavern and the Hobbler’s End.


Now just a memory, but for many of an older generation in Ringsend and Irishtown, Peter North’s pub on Bridge Street in Ringsend brings back happy memories. Alas long gone but if you walk through the lounge door of John Clarke’s public house today you will have walked the route of many of North’s customers.

Peter North was a popular publican who received extensive coverage in Irish newspapers in October 1967. Peter was celebrating his hundred birthday and was described in the Irish Press as ‘probably the oldest publican in the country’. While still living above the pub, he had retired from serving pints to the locals just three years earlier as his health began to fail.


He had been born on Upper Baggot Street and served his first pint, aged sixteen, in the pub that had been opened by his father Morgan North in Ringsend. A lively sportsman, Peter, along with his brothers Francis and Bartle, played for the Isles of the Sea GAA hurling club and they won the Dublin County Championship in 1890. Peter later recalled,

‘it was some sight with 42[1] players on the field. There used to be some awful scrimmages.’

Source: The Irish Newspaper Archives

His brother Bartle was the first superintendent of the electricity generating station at the Pigeon House when it opened in 1904[2]. His son Bartle junior became a popular bookie in Ringsend with a shop on Fitzwilliam Street. Morgan North’s public house was located on the corner of Fitzwilliam Street and Thomas Street as it was known then, now known as Irishtown Road. The newspapers reported that in 1910 Peter North of 16 Fitzwilliam Street was fined by the courts for allowing children on his premises despite the fact that their mother was with them.

Morgan North pictured at the door of his pub on Fitzwilliam Street pictured in 1910
Source : Brian Siggins through his son Gerard

Today that former North public house is home to the National Council of the Blind shop. Morgan’s only daughter Mary Catherine married Valentine Nelson, the son of another Ringsend publican Joseph Nelson. The Nelson’s also ran a butcher shop on Bridge Street. In the early twentieth century, following a Pembroke Estate decision to renovate many of the properties on the part of Fitzwilliam Street that connected with Cambridge Avenue, by 1916 the North’s had moved their public house to a building next door to the Nelson’s on Bridge Street. Peter often fell foul of the licensing laws and was raided and fined on a number of occasion for serving outside permitted hours including on Good Friday 1940 after which he was fined £2 and had his license endorsed. The following June he was raided again for serving afterhours with thirteen customers on his premises. He was fined twenty shillings and was lucky not to lose his license.

Source: Google Maps

Source : National Archives of Ireland

The pub on the Fitzwilliam Street had seen previous owners Michael Holden in the 1830’s and Edward Smith in the 1850’s before the North’s arrival. Following Morgan North’s premature death at the age of just forty five, his pub’s license was operated by Anne Lowe who seemingly employed the young Peter North as a barman until he became of age to run the pub himself.

Source: Brian Siggins

Having celebrated his centenary in October 1967, just three months later in December the popular local Ringsend publican passed away peacefully and enjoyed one of the biggest funerals seen in the south Dublin suburb. When both Nelson’s[3] pub and North’s pub were sold they were joined into one pub with a bar and lounge owned by the popular Dublin publican family, the Dwyer’s.  Today the pub is occupied by John Clarke and family who had traded for many decades successful just up the road in Irishtown.

Peter North's pub receiving a delivery of beer.

[1] 21 per side was replaced by the current 15 a side

[2] Died September 1936

[3] Sold 1968

Wednesday, October 27, 2021

The Leeds Mercury's View of the Easter Rising

The Leeds Mercury that was published in the Yorkshire City from 1718 up to its merger with the Yorkshire Post in November 1939. 


In 1916 it ran numerous stories on the 1916 Rising which included photographs from various news agencies. Their stories were a combination of official announcements, eye witness accounts including those of a Leeds businessman who was in the city when the rebellion broke out and a series of unverified rumours which seemed to emanate from sailors who had crossed the Irish Sea. 

A closer look at the pass given to a Leeds businessman to get out of Dublin signed by James Connolly that was printed in the Leeds Mercury

His memorial can be found in St. Patricks Cathedral and after being buried undiscovered in the grounds of Dublin Castle for decades after the Rising, he was reinterred at the insistence of DeValera in the British military plot at Grangegorman


Saturday, October 16, 2021

The Ringsend Publican Killed During The Easter Rising


One of the little known stories of the 1916 Easter Rising was the sad death of Ringsend publican Robert Woodcock. Robert and his brother Samuel were born in Mothel, Co. Kilkenny just north of Kilkenny city. After serving his apprenticeship in a public house in Dun Laoghaire, Robert purchased his first pub on Tyrconnell Road, Inchicore in 1909 on the banks of the Grand Canal known as Murrays, where the Black Horse pub traded for many years. His brother Samuel also bought his own pub on the corner of Thomas Street and Meath Street, now Baker’s Corner.


Meanwhile Carlow born Peter Clowry, who owned the pub at 16 Thorncastle Street, now known as Sally O’Brien’s (or the Shipwright), died in January 1916. The Woodcock’s, as well known publicans in the Dublin, attended the funeral but also spotted an opportunity. In February, thirty three year old Robert purchased Clowry’s from his estate for £3,200 and immediately began trading. Robert was an active member, like many of his fellow publicans in the South Dublin Union.

Two months after his arrival in Ringsend, he decided to use the Easter bank holiday weekend to travel home to Kilkenny to see his elderly farmer father, a widower. He travelled down in his motorcar on Saturday and decided to return on Monday but in his absence from Dublin, rebels from the Irish Volunteers, Cumman na mBan and the Irish Citizens Army took to the streets of the capital and seized control of a number of buildings. One of the battle sites seized mainly by members of the Citizens Army was St. Stephens Green. As word of trouble spread around the country, Robert decided to drive back to Dublin to look after his businesses. He arrived first at Tyrconnell Road and decided to drive across to Ringsend but he met a DMP policeman who asked him to give him a lift to Phibsboro.


They drove down Harcourt Street onto St. Stephens Green where they were met by rebels on the road who held them up at gunpoint. The two men were taken prisoner and removed into the green itself where they were greeted by Countess Markiewicz and Michael Mallin. Woodcocks’ car was made into a barricade at the top of York Street. Robert Woodcock was tied to a tree in the park while the policeman joined other prisoners being held in the gate house in the park. At one stage after a number of hours of being tied up, one of his captors decided to release Woodcock but another rebel recognised Woodcock and harboured ill feeling towards him as he appeared to side with the employers during the 1913 Lockout and was suspected as being anti Larkin. He remained a prisoner in the park throughout the night but by Tuesday as the British troops on the roof of the Shelbourne Hotel began to attack the rebel forces. The rebels, who had dug trenches in the park, had no answer or cover from the machine fire that was now focused on them.


The commander’s decision was to retreat from the park itself and take the College of Surgeons as their headquarters. Woodcock was taken across to the building but his exposure throughout the previous night had an immediate detrimental effect on his health.  Woodcock was seriously ill. He was taken by ambulance to nearby St Vincent’s hospital on St. Stephen’s Green, where he died twenty minutes after being admitted on April 28th of double pneumonia ‘brought on by exposure’, becoming a fatality of the Rising.


On May 16th the Evening Herald reported that on that day,

‘At the City Sessions, before the Recorder Mr. T.R. Holmes solicitor applied on behalf of Mr. Samuel Woodcock of 45 and 46 Thomas Street that he should be at liberty to carry on the licensed trading in the premises 16 Thorncastle Street, Ringsend until the Quarter Sessions. The licensee, Mr. Robert Woodcock, applicant’s brother, had been kept prisoner by the insurgents in St. Stephens Green during the recent insurrection and died subsequently from pneumonia brought on by exposure. The recorder granted the application.’

The Freeman Journal[1] reported in June that Samuel had been granted permission by the Dean’s Grange Burial Board to disinter his brother’s body and have it removed to Kilkenny. The Journal did report however that Robert had been accidentally shot during the rebellion. According to the website,

‘While the area Woodcock was buried in was being cleared 2014, a headstone with the name Robert Woodcock, it is likely the disinterment did not take place because Robert Woodcock buried with others without coffins and the bodies were decomposed to such a degree the disinterment did not take place. The new headstone was erected in 2016.’

In July, Robert’s brother Samuel applied to the courts to transfer the license into his name which was approved. The pub was sold two years later. The sadness of his passing was compounded that when the at time controversial memorial wall to the victims of the 1916 Easter Rising was unveiled at Glasnevin Cemetery, the memory of Robert Woodcock was somewhat obliterated when the engravers decided his name was ‘Richard Woodcock’. Surely this should be corrected immediately to honour both his memory and show respect to his family.

[1] Saturday June 10th 1916 Freeman’s Journal

Thursday, May 20, 2021

The True Story of 'Irish Destiny', The War of Independence Silent Movie

 'IRISH DESTINY'  Courtesy of the Irish Film Institute

With renovation work beginning at The Motion Picture Conservation Centre at Wright-Patterson US Air Force base in 1991, a nitrate copy of a film, believed lost, was discovered on a shelf in the facility. Operated by the US Library of Congress near Dayton, Ohio, the centre consisted of two divisions, the Film Vaults and the Motion Picture Preservation Laboratory. The Film Vaults facility provided a safe storage for the highly flammable nitrate film, which was the main method of making motion pictures from its beginnings in the early twentieth century, by maintaining the environment at a regulated temperature of 52 to 55 degrees Fahrenheit and a relative humidity of between 35 and 40 percent. What had been discovered was a copy of the first ever domestically produced feature film in the then new Irish Free State in 1926. An Irish American, Patrick Sheehan, who worked in the Library of Congress in Washington DC, made a remarkable discovery, a copy of the film, lodged there for copyright purposes and had lain untouched and unnoticed for decades. The 35mm film was in a perilously fragile state and the US authorities initiated preservation at a specialist laboratory in California.

For many movie goers, the 1993 movie ‘Cool Runnings’ starring the late John Candy and Leon Robinson introduced the unusual premis of a bobsleigh team from a nation that rarely saw snow and ice, competing in the 1988 Winter Olympics. In St Moritz, Switzerland, in January 1927, an Irish bobsleigh team was beating seasoned winter Olympic nations in bobsleigh races and setting track records in the process. The team was led by Paddy Dunne Cullinan who was an accomplished sportsman and well known in horse racing circles as the owner of the Carrollstown Stud near Trim in County Meath. He had taken over the running of the stables from his father in 1923. St. Moritz had been developed by British entrepreneurs after the First World War and its famous Cresta Run attracted thousands to watch the incredible speeds achieved by the ‘boblets’ as they flew down the hill. In the early twenties it became popular with horse racing jockeys from both Britain and Ireland. Cullinan began visiting the resort from the early twenties and would at one stage he would hold the world record for the fastest decent on the Cresta track.


On Saturday August 25th 1925 at the Arcadia Ballroom near the Bray seafront, the Irish Cinema and Theatrical Garden Party was held. It advertised that ‘stage and screen stars will be in attendance.  Outdoor cabaret shows have been arranged’ and that there would be ‘non-stop dancing’ from 8pm to midnight with the music provided by the Harrison’s and Adelaide Melody bands. In newspaper advertising at the time one of the main attractions of the Garden party was a ‘Ladies Face Competition’ with the prize announced as an ‘engagement in the new Irish film, ‘Irish Destiny’ for the winners’. It was a gamble for the novice film producer but the publicity of both the competition and the subsequent reporting, including photographs of the winner elevated the film from an amateur production to an attempt to create a fledgling Irish film industry on the back of the expected success of the Irish Free State’s first venture into domestic movie production.


The Bray competition was won by sixteen-year-old Evelyn Henchie, the daughter of a Commercial traveller who lived on Palmerstown Road in Rathmines. The competition runner ups, Eileen Grennan from Bray and Miss Hogan from Dublin were offered smaller parts in the forthcoming production. ‘Irish Destiny’ was the brainchild of a Dublin Pharmacist and leading member of the Dublin Jewish community Dr. Issac Eppel. Eppel had begun to act as an amateur impresario by booking acts for the Rathmines Town Hall variety shows. He used the funds generated from that enterprise to purchase the Palace Cinema on Pearse Street.[1] The cinema was often used as a meeting centre for the Irish volunteers in the run up to the 1916 Easter Rising and as a meeting place for dissident and underground groups.


Eppel decided to not just show movies at his cinema but to make the first feature film to be entirely made in the new Irish Free State. In September 1925, Eppel’s Films Limited was registered in Dublin by Eppel with a capital of £5,000.[2] Eppel acting as both producer and script writer, gathered a crew and employed both professional and amateur silent actors to perform in his movie. He employed a veteran of the British silent screen, Preston born George Dewhurst to direct the film. However, whether there was a disagreement between Eppel and Dewhurst or that Dewhurst did not want his name associated with the picture, the opening credits state that the film was ‘written and directed by I. Eppel’

The script was written by Eppel and shown on screen through 120 text frames. Some of the other crew included Joe Rosenthal who was in charge of cinematography and Jack Plant who created the special effects. In September 1925, filming began with outdoor scenes filmed in Enniskerry, County Wicklow, which became the fictional town of Clonmore. When O’Hara arrives back in Clonmore by train, the railway station at Rathdrum doubles as Clonmore. Scenes are filmed around Glendalough and at the Powerscourt waterfall. The chase scenes were filmed near the Sugar Loaf mountain while the set piece of the film, the battle scene was filmed on the open spaces of the Wicklow hills. The cast and crew then travelled to film studios in London to film the interior scenes. Eppel then edited the movie in London against the deadline of having it ready to screen on the tenth anniversary of the Easter Rising.

According to the Movie website IMDB, the film’s plot was,

‘When the notorious "Black and Tans" arrive at his village of Clonmore, IRA man Denis O'Hara discovers a plan to raid a secret IRA meeting, and he races to Dublin to warn his colleagues. He reaches the city but is shot and captured by British soldiers. Denis is imprisoned in Kildare but manages to escape along with his fellow prisoners. Believing him to be dead, his mother goes blind from the shock, and his girlfriend Moira is abducted by fellow villager Beecher, who is in league with the Tans. Denis arrives back in Clonmore just in time to rescue Moira. With the burning of the Customs House in Dublin, the War of Independence is soon over and a truce is reached with the British.’


To give the film a sense of authenticity, Eppel added newsreel footage filmed in Dublin during the War of Independence including the destruction of the Custom House in Dublin and the burning of Cork. This was cut with recreations filmed around the city making it at times difficult for the viewer to differentiate between fact and fiction. When Eppel was finished editing and his silent movie was ready, it consisted of eight reels and was seventy-three minutes long. According to the Trinity College database,


‘There are graphic depictions of "occupying" British soldiers being attacked and shot dead, a spectacular mass jailbreak by republican internees and scenes of jubilant villagers celebrating the success of the "armed struggle". The film also features a parish priest openly condoning the violence and assuring grief-stricken parents that their son's valour is "God's will" and will bring "peace and happiness to Ireland". A racy sub-plot involves O'Hara's sweetheart, primary school teacher Moira Barry, being abducted and threatened with rape by a sinister gang of poteen distillers led by an "informer" and his malevolent dwarf sidekick.’


A more detailed description of the film taken from Irish Destiny shows that it was set during the War of Independence and up to the Anglo-Irish Truce of 1920- 21. At the heart of the film is the love affair of Denis O'Hara and his fiancée, schoolteacher Moira Barry. The film scenes are interwoven with incidents from the war shown through newsreel material including the burning of Cork City[3] and of the Customs House[4], and the mass escape from the Curragh Camp[5]. In the peaceful village of Clonmore, Black and Tans arrive to terrorise the people. O’Hara’s mother is badly affected by these disturbances. Her eyesight begins to fail from the shock and in reaction to the unfolding events in the country, her son decides to join the IRA and is handed a weapon. Following an ambush of a troop convoy by the IRA, an important communique is found on one of the officers. This is the major battle scene and with a sense of reality it portrayed casualties on both sides. The battle is depicted as a David v Goliath attack.  The intertitle[6] states,

‘at dawn, a small number of volunteers with only a few rifles and shotguns, prepare to attack lorries of powerfully equipped and numerically superior forces of military and Black & Tans.’

The films showed the IRA is numbered at thirteen and they take on three tenders of British forces with approximately fifteen men on each, a total of forty five men. As the battle progresses, the British casualty numbers increase and eventually the survivors climb onto one tender abandoning the other two. This indicates thirty casualties on the British side. In this attack and a subsequent raid on an abandoned house the IRA Volunteers were using there were two IRA casualties. To lend sympathy to the Irish cause in the film, the Black and Tans abandoned the dying and wounded as they fled, while the IRA are seen picking up both of their casualties and removing them from the battlefield.


O’Hara is asked by Captain Kelly, the commandant of the Clonmore Battalion, IRA to take the information to the IRA's Dublin headquarters. He gets a horse from the jarvey’s stable but before setting off he sees Moira and tells her why he needs to go to Dublin. After he leaves, Moira's horse is startled by a shot, and O’Hara gallops to catch the trap. Also on the scene is Beecher, leader of a gang of poteen-makers based at the Haunted Mill. Beecher offers to look after Moira, but when she recovers, he tries to molest her. He becomes suspicious of Denis' activities. Arriving at the 'Meeting of the Waters', Denis rests his horse, but he is spotted by a British army sentry on the bridge who opens fire and this alerts a British army motorcyclist. During the chase, Denis shoots the soldier on the roadway and steals his motorbike, which he uses to get to Dublin. The film footage includes a camera mounted on a van filming the following motorcycle through the Dublin streets. As he is driving down O'Connell St, Denis believes he is being followed. At the IRA headquarters, Vaughan's Hotel, Parnell Square, Denis delivers the message to an intelligence officer.


However, the Black and Tans arrive outside on the Square, having been tipped off by Beecher, and Denis is shot and captured. His parents and others, including Captain Kelly, believe he is dead, but he is being cared for in a hospital. A sympathetic nurse smuggles out a message[7], and when he recovers, he is imprisoned at the Curragh Detention Camp. There, in September 1921, Denis, along with 200 other prisoners, escape from custody. Despite a search, including by aircraft shown through a newsreel footage the aircraft flying in formation, Denis remains free. He is given help by an old woman, and eventually finds his way to Shanahan’s, where he finds Kitty, the jarvey's daughter. He enquires about Moira, who has gone by car with Beecher who falsely tells her that there is a wounded IRA Volunteer on the road needing attention. When he reaches the Mill, Beecher stops the car and violently drags the protesting Moira into the Mill. Meanwhile, Denis and Kitty get on a horse and give chase. In the Mill, Moira is tied to a pillar and is drunkenly assaulted by Beecher and the dwarf poteen-maker, as Beecher accuses her of providing information about the Tans to the IRA. A dispute breaks out between Beecher and the dwarf which leads to Beecher shooting the dwarf dead. As a result of the shooting the Mill is accidentally set alight. Denis and Kitty arrive at the Mill and Denis becomes locked in struggle with Beecher, whom he subdues. He frees Moira as the flames engulf the Mill and Denis and Moira join Kitty in safety outside, as the Mill burns. Peace descends on Clonmore with the Anglo-Irish Truce. People dance on the roadway, while in Dublin crowds celebrate the coming of peace. Though blind by now as a result of the nervousness induced by the trauma of her son’s actions, Mrs O'Hara is happy to have her son home, where he arrives with Moira, as his father and the local priest give their support


There was little surprise that the film was banned by the British censorship board but Eppel believed that much needed revenue to recoup his investment would be generated by the Irish audiences’ response being publicised in the United States. The novelty of the first Irish film was expected to play well with the Irish diaspora across the United States. On March 24th 1926 the film was premiered to cinema owners and managers at the Metropole Cinema on Dublin’s O’Connell Street, nest door to the iconic GPO. Also in attendance was much of the cast including the extras, many of whom were IRA men who had seen action during previous decade. Once seen, the cinema managers or owners would then bid on which cinema would get the public premiere and the all-important first run. After the screening the owners of the Corinthian Cinema on Aston Quay signed what was described as ‘the highest price paid for a film in Ireland’. On April 3rd 1926, the film opened in the Corinthian.


This was the opening credits of the film, listing the characters and the actors.


The new Irish State was emerging from a war of independence with Britain and struggled through a violent and vicious civil war and any movie that would have been seen as perhaps re-opening some of those wounds was always going to be controversial. There was a genuine fear of the threats of violence against those involved with the film. As a result, many of those who appeared in the film did so by using pseudonyms but appeared with the real names in Irish newspaper advertisements. The actual cast were,

Paddy Dunne Cullinan as Denis O'Hara. This was Cullinan’s only film credit. He was employed for the role primarily for his horsemanship. He had been a popular sportsman in Ireland especially in the equine business. He was a well-known point to point trainer and jockey and a number of his horses would go onto win some of the racing world’s biggest races including the Irish Grand National. He was a leading polo player in Dublin’s Phoenix Park and while on holidays in Europe discovered winter sports including skiing and bobsledding.


Frances McNamara as Moira Barry, a schoolteacher and Denis' fiancée. This was Ms. McNamara’s only screen credit.


Daisy Campbell as Mrs. O'Hara, Denis' mother. Ms. Campbell was an English actress, popular on the London Theatre scene, who had been in a number of silent pictures prior to her role in Irish Destiny. She was well known for portraying aristocratic white-haired matrons and Lady’s. Her final film role would be as Mrs McPhillips in the film ‘The Informer’ based on Liam O’Flaherty’s work about an IRA informer. But she was not the first choice to play the role.


Originally cast as Mrs. O’Hara was Sarah Allgood, who had been the first Irish voice to be heard on radio in the British Isles appearing on the forerunner of BBC Radio, 2LO. On the day before Eppel showed his film to the assembled cinema owners in Dublin, he appeared in the Dublin District Court before Justice Piggott. He was being sued by Allgood under her married name Sarah Benson for a breach of contract as Eppel had agreed to employ her for two periods of six days each, six in Ireland and six in the London studios at a rate of four guineas per day. But when she arrived in Greystones in September to begin filming, Eppel told her that she looked too young to play the part of the mother. She told Eppel that she had played motherly roles in the past and said ‘if you give me the part, I will give you the emotions you want’ but Eppel said no and Allgood retuned to London. She won her case and was awarded £29 8s.


But Allgood wasn’t the only one to take Eppel to court. A year after her case was heard, another case was taken against Eppel. John Byrne, a horse and jarvey owner of Queensboro Road, Bray took a case against Eppel for the non-payment of £30 for the hire of his horse and cart. He claimed that he had to be on call for a full month but would only be used when weather was permitting and this was only fourteen days. He sought payment for the other days. He said in court that his pony and trap was used in the ‘runaway scene’ and that he would have to travel to the Sugar Loaf, Greystones or Shankill depending on the filming schedule. He was awarded £14 by Justice Davitt at the Dublin Circuit Court.


Clifford Pembroke as Mr. O'Hara, Denis' father. He was born Thomas Jones Williams in Pembrokeshire, Wales in 1867 and appeared in over a dozen British silent films. He died in London aged sixty-five, his last film was The Woman from China in 1930, written by George Dewhurst who directed Irish Destiny.


Brian Magowan as Gilbert Beecher, a gang leader of the poteen-makers. McGowan appeared in a number of the early Irish located silent films with Fred O’Donovan including Knocknagow and Willie Reilly and his Colleen Bawn.


Cathal McGarvey as Shanahan, a jarvey. McGarvey was a well-known and popular veteran Dublin entertainer known for his performances on stage at the Queens Theatre. In 1924, he had been the beneficiary of a celebration night at the Queens and appearing with him on stage was the aforementioned Sarah Allgood and the newspapers reported that a highlight of the show was his music and comedy duets with Jimmy O’Dea. He also recorded for the Gaelic League with future Irish president Douglas Hyde. His fame from the film would be short lived as he passed away in November 1927.


Evelyn Henchie as Kitty, Shanahan's daughter. Evelyn, having won the competition in Bray, was 16 years old when the film was made, only appears in outdoor scenes, because these were filmed in Ireland. She was not allowed to travel to London where the interiors were shot in a studio.[8] Later Evelyn would marry Sir Raymond Grace and become known as Lady Evelyn Grace, living in Dublin splendour on Sussex Road, off Leeson Street in Dublin. She would become well known as a dog breeder and exhibitor of pedigree bull terriers.


In 1927, when the movie opened in New York, the Evening Independent reported on April 20th that,

‘Peggy O’Rorke, the young Irish woman who plays the leading part in ‘Irish Destiny’, the all-Irish film play will arrive in New York in June and it is considered likely she will appear in pictures in this country. She will also make personal appearances with the film, as it is shown in theatres throughout the country. ‘


While Eppel was in the United States promoting his movie, his Palace Cinema on Pearse Street[9] was badly damaged by fire. In a telegram from New York, he immediately informed his sister Olga Weiner, who had been running the cinema in his absence, that he intended to rebuild and refurbish the cinema and reopen it under its original name ‘The Ancient Concert Rooms’.


A letter appeared in The Irish Times on October 1st 1984 from Evelyn reminisced about the making of Irish Destiny and wondered, "Does anyone else remember?" The letter stirred some memories, but all copies of the film were believed to be lost. And that was almost the end of the matter until, a few years later, by truly serendipitous coincidence, two original colour posters advertising the film were found under linoleum during a house renovation in Ringsend, Dublin.


The Irish Film Archive triggered a painstaking worldwide search of film archives on the remote chance that a copy might have survived somewhere. Then Patrick Sheehan, who worked in the Library of Congress, made his remarkable discovery, a copy of the film, lodged there for copyright purposes.

Kit O'Malley as Captain Kelly, commandant, Clonmore Battalion, IRA. O’Malley acted also as a consultant on the movie as well as acting in it. 'Kit' O'Malley had been Adjutant in the Dublin Brigade of the IRA during the War of Independence and he also assisted in directing the battle scenes in the film.


Val Vousden as the Catholic Priest. Carlow born Bill McNevin had a long career on stage, radio and in films. In 1914 while travelling in a repertory company in England he joined the British army during World War One and saw action of the green fields of France.[10]


Tom Flood as Intelligence Officer, IRA headquarters. He was involved on the attack on the Custom House. Tom Flood was arrested at the Custom House while is brother Eddie who was also on the raid, escaped. It is said Tom was jailed in Mountjoy and sentenced to death. Only to be reprieved first by appendicitis and then the Truce.

(The unusual story of Tom Flood can be found here )


Tom Flood, with the red star above his head, pictured several times 
after his arrest outside the Custom House

 Two of Eppel’s sons also appeared in the film as extras. Derek Eppel as Schoolboy, while Simon Eppel portrayed a man with cigar at Vaughan's Hotel.


The film, despite its pre publicity did not wow the critics. The Irish Independent reported on that day after it had been shown to Cinema owners and newspaper reporters that,

‘What is known an s a trade show; of the film ‘Irish Destiny’ was given ay the Metropole today. The house was crowded and included many of the men who formed the backbone of the old pre-truce Volunteer force who carried on the great struggle against Great Britain. Frankly, we were not impressed by the production. It has, however, several good points but it has bad ones as well. Opinion will very likely differ on those matters.

To begin with, if we exclude what we might describe as the Hollywood atmosphere which surrounds part of it, the film is an advance from the point of view of film production on anything attempted here so far. The photography leaves nothing to be desired, the light is good, the scenery quite pleasing and with the exception of the work of one of the artistes, the hero, torn between love and duty, is a tribute to Irish talent and is creditable to those who took part.


They are worthy of a better story, a more suitable groundwork, something which would bring out more and, in a manner, which would appeal to those who lived through the trying period, the real spirit of those times, with particular relation to the work of the Volunteers. There is nothing derogatory said of them, but there is little either that is forceful or satisfying. What outsiders will think about it will probably be quite different. We see a disconnected story. People in America may consider it all right but as an insight into the past it is a pity that something better could not be put upon the record.


There are clashes in arms which are vivid enough and incidents which are week. The Customs House burning is amongst the latter. It would probably be difficult to reconstruct scenes to depict those happenings and to have them brought out with more thoroughness, is probably expecting too much. We are given the impression of what the agony of the struggle meant in the homes of the people, to the mothers whose sons were fighting and to the men themselves as well. This is all right and is well acted by Daisy Campbell as the mother, Clifford Pembroke as the father and Val Vousden as the parish priest. Cathal McGarvey as the jarvey is suited to the part and Peggy O’Rourke and Una Shields, the latter as the heroine cover themselves well. ‘Kit O’Malley’, the IRA Commandant and Denis O’Shea, the hero, are also good. Bryan McGowan as the poteen maker and treacherous character, handles his role skilfully but the scene in his den appears to strike a foreign note so as this country is concerned.


We are hurried through the hectic period from 1916 to 1921 in whirlwind fashion. We see Black and Tans, military tanks, armoured cars and we get glimpses of war. Sections of the audience applauded. British arms were answered with hisses and we came away unconvinced by the story or the theme.’

It must be remembered that for many cinema goers accustomed to US and British made movies, the views of an Irish countryside were a novelty. For those viewing the film in rural Ireland, who had often read or heard about the importance of Vaughan’s Hotel to the Michael Collins led war, would have been exited to see action filmed outside the Parnell Square location. The use of actual newsreel film confused the supposed timeline of the film. There was some confusion in the film about its exact periodisation in 1921. While the escape from the Curragh Camp occurred on 9 September 1921, it appears in the film’s timeline to be followed by the Anglo-Irish Truce, which came into effect on 11 July 1921, two months earlier. The impression one is left with it is that it is the Anglo-Irish Treaty of December 1921 which ends the film.


The other point made by the Irish Independent was scene filmed in the poteen makers disused mill headquarters. He had kidnapped the heroine, O’Hara’s girlfriend and his actions intimate that she is about to be raped. The fact that a number of criminals are there would seem to suggest that she was going to be gang raped and when one of the criminals developed a conscience, he was killed by the villain. She is tied up in a scene reminiscent of a BDSM scene from the modern era. The scene itself seems gratuitous and unnecessary to the plotline, as the kidnapping alone would send the hero into action to save his girl. There was also criticism from the Catholic Church of these scenes especially as a Parish priest played a central role in the film, although his acceptance of IRA violence was subsequently called into question when it was first shown in cut form in Britain.


On the front cover of Peter Cotterill’s book ‘The War for Ireland 1913 -1923’ is a photograph that is credited as,

‘This remarkable photograph, taken on 14 October 1920 by 15-year-old John J. Hogan, an apprentice photographer, is of British intelligence officer, Lt Gilbert Arthur Price RTR, only seconds before he was killed in a gun battle with the IRA during a raid on the Republican Outfitters in Talbot Street, Dublin. IRA leader Seán Treacy was also killed during this incident.’

The same photograph captioned ‘14 October 1920 Lieutenant Price, British intelligence officer, opens fire on Sean Treacy in Talbot Street, Dublin’ appears accompanied by an article on the January 1919 Soloheadbeg ambush in the Spring 1997 issue of History Ireland.[11] The photograph while it was taken by Hogan, who would later become the Chief Photographer at the Irish Independent, it was not from events in 1920 but a photograph of Paddy Dunne Cullinan acting out the seen where he fires on the ‘Black and Tans’ who attempt to arrest him outside Vaughan’s Hotel.

 In Britain, Irish Destiny achieved the dubious distinction of being one of only five films banned in 1926, another was the Russian produced Battleship Potemkin. In 2012 Battleship Potemkin was named by the British Film Institute as the eleventh greatest film of all time. Irish Destiny was cut by almost five minutes including much of the centrepiece battle scene and was released under the title An Irish Mother, but it flopped at the box office. Part of the problem for Eppel was that movie technologies were moving faster than distribution of his film, making his amateurish production look poor in relation to US imports. British audiences and audiences in general did not care about its uniqueness as the first domestically produced film. The story, acting and photography ranked higher in the minds of those paying in at the box office. In America, where Eppel travelled to, to promote the film, it received a snooty review in the New York Times, a newspaper with a fearsome reputation for making or breaking movies published on March 29th, 1927, under the headline "Dublin Fighting".


The critic noted that the film "was presented at Daly's Theatre[12] last evening to an audience composed largely of persons of Irish birth or extraction" and described the acting and direction as "very amateurish" and the photography as "deficient". But the audience didn't give a hoot. "The scenes of Irish Destiny elicited constant waves of applause. The spectators manifested their enthusiasm when the Black and Tans fell, and they hissed, as in the days of old melodrama, when a Black and Tan bullet struck an Irish Volunteer". The film was shown at Daly’s for five weeks. When it was released in Britain under the title ‘An Irish Mother’ the Daily Sketch said of the film,

‘There is freshness as well as the charm of naivete about this Irish contribution to the screen, albeit it would be useless to deny that the firstling has faults which would or should not be found in the output of more experienced producers.’

It was re-released in Ireland in 1927 with extra scenes of newsreel footage added and it continued to sell out cinemas but despite its popularity in Irish, audiences in Ireland alone would not return Eppel’s investment on the movie. The English premiere of the edited version of Irish Destiny, retitled An Irish Mother, took place on October 27th 1927 in Newcastle. The Kinematograph Weekly reported,

‘An Irish Mother The premier presentation in England of Mr. Eppel's Irish-made picture, "An Irish Mother." took place on October 27 at the Futurist, Newcastle, where an excellent attendance was addressed by Walter C. Scott. chairman of the North Western branch of the C.E.A. who briefly welcomed this Irish production to the screen. Before the picture a prologue was presented, showing "Mother Machree " seated at her spinning wheel, whilst an unseen vocalist sang the song of the film.’

On December 1st 1927, it opened in two picture houses in Liverpool. The project drove Dr Eppel to the brink of financial ruin and he emigrated to England in 1928, having sold the Palace Cinema to his brother and brother-in-law and the rights to his film to a European production company[1]. His Eppel Film Company had debts of £13,000 when he met with creditors at his solicitor’s office[2]. His marriage was also troubled and he moved alone to England where he resumed practice as a GP, never making another film although the trade papers reported that he had been appointed in April 1929 as the Four Northern Counties representative of the British Talking Pictures Company.  Before he left Ireland in 1928, Eppel found himself in Court once again in relation to his movie. He appeared before the Irish Supreme Court as a case reached the top court for a decision. He sued Ernest Tahon of Brussels for unpaid instalments of £500. The court awarded £375 to Eppel when the objection to a Tahon affidavit being taken by an English commissioner was rejected. Eppel died in Kingston-upon-Thames in 1942. By then, Irish Destiny was already long forgotten. That was until the copy used in New York theatres was found in the film archive.

On December 11th 1993 at the National Concert Hall, Dublin, the complete restored copy from the Library of Congress was screened at this invite only event accompanied by a new score written for the film by Michael Ó Suilleabhain. 'Mother Machree' and 'Danny Boy' were recommended as musical accompaniments on the film itself when it was first released. The event was attended by President Mary Robinson. Alas the woman who lit the spark to find a copy of the film Evelyn Grace (Henchie) died the previous March.


The National Concert Hall is once again the venue for a special screening in 2006, the eve of St Patrick's Day. The score was again performed by Mícheál Ó Súilleabháin, together with the RTÉ Concert Orchestra conducted by Prionnsías Ó Duinn. It was described in the Evening Herald, ‘It is an intriguing aide-memoire for a society reflecting on the 90th anniversary of the Easter Rising’.[15]


[[1] The Bioscope, June 20th 1928

[2] The Bioscope March 8th 19281] Later to become the Academy Cinema and Theatre

[2] September 10th 1925, The Bioscope

[3] December 11th 1920

[4] May 25th 1921

[5] September 9th 1921

[6] An intertitle is the subtitle screen in a silent movie

[7] The message is never seen reaching its intended recipient, Moira.

[8] IMDB

[9] Originally known as Great Brunswick Street, the street was renamed after the executed 1916 leader Patrick Pearse in 1925

[10] From his autobiography ‘Val Vousden's Caravan.’

[11] Page 43

[12] New York

[13] The Bioscope, June 20th 1928

[14] The Bioscope March 8th 1928

[15] Irish Times March 11th 2006